Flags in history and protocol
The political science dictionaries I consulted did not mention the word flag³ strangely enough.
One exception was the dictionary edited by Jean-Paul Ancracio, who however, instead of defining what a flag is, just establishes a distinction with regard to the “pavilion”.
⁴ The only book I found in the social science section of the university library at the Université Libre de Bruxelles entirely dedicated to flags⁵ was placed in the subsection dealing with nationalism/nation states.
However, one has more chances to find the mentioning of “flags” in international public law books. The Dictionnaire de droit international public edited by Professor Jean Salmon distinguishes between two types of flags, namely:
A. Roll of tissue attached to a pole, carrying the colours, the emblems of a state, a nation, an international organization or a grouping, and adopted their distinctive sign.
It is carried by the weapons, raised on the public buildings of the state, its embassies, its permanent missions, consulates and representations to the international organizations.
For the ships, it takes usually the name of pavilion (…).
B. Piece of tissue attached to a pole with certain characteristics or without any signs at all and employed to make signals or to distinguish a special mission. One speaks thus about a white flag (…).⁶ (my translation)
Another definition is the following:
FLAG (or Flagge, a common Teutonic word in this sense, but apparently first recorded in English), a piece of bunting or similar material, admitting of various shapes and colours, and waved in the wind from a staff or cord for use in display as a standard, ensign or signal.
The word may simply be derived onomatopoeically, or transferred from the botanical flag; or an original meaning of a piece of cloth may be connected with the 12th-century English flage, meaning a baby's garment; the verb to flag, i.e.
droop, may have originated in the idea of a pendulous piece of bunting, or may be connected with the O. Fr. flaguir, to become flaccid.⁷
A similar word is emblem, in the sense that state emblems are
symbolic figures or signs which are reproduced on the flag or on a badge a characteristic sign of the state (my translation).⁸
Many international organizations also adopt an emblem and a flag, both being mostly identical. See for example the signs/emblems of the United Nations or the European Union, which one finds on their publications as well as on their flags.
Law books contain often articles dealing directly or indirectly with flags as protected emblems, or mentioned within a specific context, for example jus in belli or methods of warfare, maritime law, armed forces etc. (see chapter VI).
One can also find a lot of information about flags on the Internet, either by finding electronic copies of printed articles or through information contained on various vexillology websites.⁹ The quality of information contained therein can however vary, depending on the sites.¹⁰ Some governmental and nongovernmental websites may give detailed information.¹¹
³ McLEAN Iain, McMILLAN Alistair, Oxford concise dictionary of politics, 3rd ed, Oxford University Press, 2009, 599p / MOKHTAR Lakehal, Dictionnaire de science politique, 2nd ed, L’Harmattan, Paris, 2005, 422p / SANDHAL Pierre, de BEA Louise, Dictionnaire politique et diplomatique, Librairie technique, without a date, Paris, 193p
⁴ PANCRACIO Jean-Paul, Dictionnaire de la Diplomatie, Editions Micro Buss, 1998, p 232
⁵ ERIKSEN Thomas Hylland, JENKINS Richard (ed), Flag, nation and symbolism in Europe and America, Routledge, London and New York, 2007, 193p
⁶ SALMON Jean (Ed) (1), Dictionnaire de droit international public, Bruylant, Bruxelles, 2001, “A. Pièce d’étoffe attachée à une hampe et portant les couleurs, les emblèmes d’un Etat, d’une nation, d’une organisation internationale ou d’un groupement et adoptée comme leur signe distinctif.
Il est porté par les armes, arboré sur les bâtiments publics de l’Etat, de ses ambassades, de ses missions permanentes, consulats et représentations auprès des organisations internationales. Pour les navires, il prend habituellement le nom de pavillon (…) B.
Pièce d’étoffe attachée à une hampe avec certains signes distinctifs ou sans signe du tout et employée pour faire des signaux ou pour distinguer une mission spéciale. On parle ainsi de drapeau blanc (…) “, p 367
⁷ Flag (1) quoted in http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Flag
⁸ SALMON Jean (ed) (1), op cit., p 421
⁹ Such as: http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags / http://www.ralfstelter.de / http://www.fiav.org/FIAV.html / http://www.flaggenlexikon.de/ http://www.flaggenkunde.de/
¹⁰ See the warnings on the quality of the information’s found in NELSON Philip L, The Cybervexillology problem in Articles from NAVA News and RAVEN, North American Vexillological Association, 2001
¹¹ Such as: http://www.culture.gov.uk/what_we_do/honours/7125.aspx#how / http://www.india.gov.in/knowindia/national_flag.php / http://www.chinaflagfoundation.org/en/about.htm / http://www.flagaustnat.asn.au/default.php / http://www.pch.gc.ca/progs/cpsc-ccsp/etiqtt/index-eng.cfm, http://www.usflag.org/flagetiquette.html
Chapter II History of flags
II.1. First mention
If a “flag” is considered by its purpose, namely being a rallying sign or a sign of identification, some authors go back in history as far as the Egyptians, the Assyrians or the first Jews to trace its origin. However, one is then mostly talking of symbols or objects.¹² The oldest flag or symbol that is known seems to be a metallic standard found in what is now Iran, and dating back 5.000 years.¹³
The first reference to the use of objects for identifying an assembly, a military unit, notable persons, or goods, seems to date back to 550 BC in the Ancient Egypt.¹⁴ The symbol for the Pharaoh was the hawk, an allusion to the good Horus. Assyrian soldiers carried representations of a bullock. Roman military units carried first representations of an Eagle as their symbol.¹⁵
Many sources quote different dates when the first description was recorded of a fabric flag. One source puts the first description of flags as having been done by Greek authors at the end of the 5th century BC.¹⁶ Another source quotes a painting on a wall in a Samnite colony in Southern Italy dating 400 BC.
¹⁷ It seems that devices and ornaments figured already on the sails of Egyptian or Assyrian ships.¹⁸ The Old Testament contains various references to flags. When Moses assembled and brought the twelve tribes Egypt, each of the twelve gathered under its flag, on which an image was painted, mostly images of animal deities.
The Romans used also symbols for their army units, the legions. Their cavalry units carried a rectangular banner, the vexillum, hanging from a piece of wood fixed cross-wise.
²⁰ From this word derives the word Vexillology, namely the study of flags.
²¹ Fabric flags were later also used by the Christian Roman emperors,²² sometimes just suspended, as modern flags are, on a staff to one side.²³
The habit of carrying standards or ensign seems to have travelled from the Middle East via India to China where however their design was transformed.
The Chinese flags, made silk, were easier to colour and they waved more in the wind than the heavy tissue of the Vexillum, therefore making a bigger impression on the observer.
²⁴ The first cloth flags, light, large, coloured, enduring and fixed to a stick, seem to have originated from China starting at 100 BC, where they were used for military but also for religious purposes.²⁵ The colours used were associated with philosophical or religious concepts.²⁶
However, it is questionable if one can speak at that time already of flags in the modern meaning of the word.
Although similar in some functions to modern flags, these devices were all portable devices and not flown from flagpoles. In consequence, flags in their modern sense were still to be invented.²⁷
The use of flags really seems to have taken off around the 11th century with the Crusades.²⁸ One reads that the Prophet Mohammed used first a black flag before the colour green took over.
However, the Arabs also adapted the design – colours and inscriptions – of their flags to specific individuals or dynasties, while at the same time trying to establish a link through association with the Prophet Mohammed.²⁹
The Arab world contributed significantly to the modern flag tradition by inventing cloth flags with greater adaptability. (…) Associating colours with dynasties and/or individual leaders reinforced the particular ethos of a political identity and later became the basis for all modern flags.³⁰
Flags were often used to identify soldiers on the battlefield.
The first sign used by the crusaders was a cross, whose heritage can still be seen in some contemporary flags such as the flags of the Nordic countries.
Once the crusaders became familiar with the use of flags in the Arab world, they brought them back with them to Europe where they started adorning the tops of their castles.³¹
The emergence of the heraldry during the Middle Ages in order to identify persons and family lines also led to the inclusion of the coats of arms onto the flags.³² Some state flag designs still bear witness of this.
The ecclesiastics helped in the change in the 12th century of seals from being signs of identification of individuals to becoming signs of identification of entities. Afterwards the heraldic coats of arms became linked to specific territories.
³³ One can therefore trace back various national or state flags in Europe to the armorial or coloured flags used by the former ruling dynasties.
Flags also had throughout history an important function as rallying points around which military units could organize. This was particular important at times where there did not exist any standardised uniforms, which would have allowed to distinguish friend from foe. Consequently, one does not speak in these cases of flags, but of “colours”.³⁴
In the 16th century, the need for signal systems at sea, as well as the organization of larger armies, brought with it the emergence of two types of flags, the ones with simpler designs and the ones with more elaborated designs with armorial bearings.³⁵
II.2. The emergence of national flags
Flags, besides representing states, were used more often to identify the reigning houses, as monarchies dominated largely as the form of state organization until the end of the First World War.
However, some flags already started to emerge as a means of identification of nations.
One thinks of the French tricolour, reduced and popularised via the ‘tricolour cockade’ adopted during the French Revolution of 1789, the flag of the United States of America or the German tricolour at end of the 18th, early 19th century.³⁶
Thus, if we understand the ‘nation’ as having developed after 1789 we must conclude that ‘national’ symbols as such did not exist in earlier times. This does not mean that pre-modern communalities had no need to employ symbols in order to represent their societies.
On the contrary, symbols that indicate belonging to a community constitute a ubiquitous feature of social life and are not exclusive to nations.
However, early symbolic devices were not indicative of nationality in its modern sense, and, even if pre-modern loyalties did exist, it is premature to talk about nations in the middle Ages.³⁷
Thus the national flag appears as a statement of the ‘modern’ mass-participant nation of citizens, illustrating people’s desire to express a new kind of ‘sameness’, nationhood and citizenship.
More correctly, national flags emerge after having been selected and established by nation-states, nations without states and states without nations. Elites in pursuit of state power play an essential role in this process.
However, many flags survived over time and only managed to do so because of their support from and resonance with the people.³⁸
If flags are linked to the nation they represent, they are not necessarily everlasting. Flags of countries can change over time.
As it can happen when countries undergo profound changes, such as revolutions, see the changes to the Libyan flag in August 2011, or internal changes, see the changes to the flag of Myanmar in October 2012.
³⁹ The fact that some flags have been changed over time by the states which they represent confirms the view that flags are linked to an identity (see chapter IV) and change with it. The same holds true regarding the flags of newly created countries, either through decolonisation or
The Art of Attracting Beautiful Women
You have been trained to be a slave from birth.
Your mother has been grooming you to open doors for a woman, to have women go first always, to buy flowers, chocolates, movies, dinners and to respect and cave to a woman’s every wish, demand and changing mood.
Meanwhile, your father has been raising his daughter to believe boys are shallow and only want one thing: ‘sex’. They teach their daughters that boys will do and say anything for sex, including opening doors, buying flowers, chocolates, movies, dinners and will do and say anything to get laid.
But what your mother has been teaching you, is NOT how your father got your mother.
In fact, it is highly possible your father attracted your mother by being rude and funny. He probably was not a complete gentleman. You might find that your father has a porn collection somewhere. He may swear a little and make sexist comments around the house that your mother scorns at, yet tolerates. Your mother is teaching you to be the opposite of your father.
Do you remember the English rhyme of what little girls and little boys are made of? Sugar and spice and all things nice. That’s what little girls are made of. Snakes and snails and puppy dog tails.
That’s what little boys are made of. This is how you have been conditioned through rhymes and childhood songs and then your father teaches your sister that men want only one thing.
Fathers are very protective of their daughters.
Therefore I can see that women are groomed to become demanding princesses and men are groomed to be their servants. Yet women are in constant search of their prince who will not always give into her demands. She’s in search of a challenge. In search of a prince who will set her heart on fire.
But how does a princess become a princess?
Either her daddy is a king OR she finds a prince who will marry her and make her a princess.
But you see, every day she is approached by people you, who have been groomed to be her weaker servant. How can she sift through all of the weak men to find her prince? Can this help you explain why you are not successful with women? Or why you aren’t getting the quality of women you desire?
You answer yourself that question.
During school years, we are conditioned by our teachers, the education system and society to be and act a certain way.
What they taught us when we were younger, during those years defined our personalities.
So we fight to become adults and we have no idea what to do or where to turn, and the only real indicator in life are the lessons our parents gave us, whether they are right or wrong. Many times, wrong.
As teens we looked for a path, but as the saying goes, When you don’t have a map, any road will do. And this is when we REALLY lose our way with our relationships with women and will do and say just about anything to keep them happy. They stay as princesses. You stay as a servant. You continue your life as a weak man, when they seek a strong man to take the lead.
To begin to identify and fix the problems of being her weak servant, or, as some would call it, a ‘pussy’, you need to look back on your youth and ask yourself If I had the chance, what would I wish that I had learned as a child?
Here is what I began to answer myself:
I wish I had been raised to never be outcome dependent.
When I expected an outcome and didn’t get it, it always brought me pain. I thought all women were bitches. I didn’t trust them at all. I couldn’t understand why women would say they couldn’t find anybody sweet and kind, yet as a sweet and kind guy, I felt stepped on by them.
Why would a woman say she wants to find a nice guy who cares for her, yet doesn’t date a single nice guy around her? I set in place plans of action to get them, expecting an outcome and when I was rejected, the pain was truly amplified by my expectations, that were never met.
And yet, without any clue as to what I was doing, only guessing, I couldn’t logically EXPECT the outcome I desired. It should have been that I’d be happy if I got that outcome. Doing it all by experimentation should mean than any outcome was possible.
So I wish I’d never been outcome dependent.
I wish I had a fashion mentor.
I should have listened to my sister more. While she was dating older guys, she knew what she wanted in her men. She wanted to dress me the same way as the guys she was attracted to. If I had done this, I could have had greater success.
I wish I had been a more observant person.
If I had just noticed the world around me, I could have copied all of the people I wanted to be , not simply admire them. What made the popular guy popular? Where were the strong guys at lunchtime? At the gym maybe? Where did the cool guys buy their clothes? What did the popular guys say to the girls to get them interested?
I wish I had listened more to my father, than my mother.
I wish my father had said these words to me, If you want to be successful then watch and mirror those people that have what you want and then do only that, nothing else.
But I should have listened to his words of wisdom too.
How did he talk to my mother? What drove him in business? How did people react to his presence? What was he teaching my sister? Why did people love to go to him for advice, while I stayed a rebellious teen?
WHAT QUESTIONS CAN YOU ASK NOW OF YOUR PAST?
Now, consider this observation: In a world full of single men and women, why do so many women say they can’t find anybody? I think that it’s simply that they can’t find a prince. Men, who are the person you will become, are in short supply. You about to become the ultimate rare commodity and I want women to finally flock to be with you.
CHAPTER 2 – THE 4 STAGES OF YOUR JOURNEY
There are 4 parts to your evolution in dating.
1. UNCONSCIOUS INCOMPETENCE:
You have spent most of your life in the first part. This is the beginning, where your life has been happily and not so happily ignorant; not knowing anything better and never knowing other people that have suffered as you have suffered but have found the dream solutions to your problems.
To this point you became more and more disillusioned with the opposite sex. As the years passed and school ended, you were forced into the real world without mastery in social dynamics. Finally you snapped. You hit the threshold of your pain, whatever level that was and whenever in your life that was, and you broke down.
At your downward spiral or at rock bottom you’d discovered ‘The Community’, the legion of men worldwide who attempt to master the psychology of women and how best to give them what they REALLY want as opposed to what they SAY they want.
This global brotherhood that are on a self development path may have become crucial to your success in life. This is the 2nd part of your journey.
2. CONSCIOUS INCOMPETENCE:
You are in Conscious Incompetence now. You see, you now know that you are entirely aware that you don’t have the tools to succeed. But also, you now know that tools actually exist to give you the results you’ve always dreamed of.
This is the learning phase. It’s the inspirational phase. You see, this is the phase where you fight back. In real time, you will learn a technique or theory and apply it immediately. You will learn from it, and do it again and again until you get it right and you get the outcome you desire.
In this phase you will really learn to love yourself. You will create a new you, a new identity that you can keep separate from your weak self.
You’ll learn techniques, openers, and routines. You will perfect these. You’ll kiss women, take them to your bed, fall in love, get stepped on, start again, and practice and learn.
3. CONSCIOUS COMPETENCE:
At this point your results will start to become phenomenal.
You’ll learn theories and be given the most insightful AHAH!! moments that will shock you so much, you may feel sickened that you ever thought the way that you once did.
As you grow strong, you’ll make amazing new friends who have the same common goals. You will come back from the dead, as a brand new, confident prince. You will have so much success that it will begin to bore you.
But you will be thinking of what to do and say next, much learning to drive a car. You think one step ahead and keep your focus on the one thing, your path.
4. UNCONSCIOUS COMPETENCE:
At this point, generally you will desire something deeper and you will not only meet your dream woman, but you will have the skills to, and you WILL attract her. At phase 1 you would have met her and she would have dated somebody else.
And here, finally she is yours. But then, you will have one woman and not have to fight for many. But you will need to maintain the one you now have, although you were not ready to deal with her devotion.
Here you will master the entirety of social dynamics.
After driving your car for several years, I bet that you can now talk on your phone, eat, drink a coffee, change the radio station and daydream while STILL driving your car. You can now do this task automatically. This is where you will be with attracting women.
Let’s move through phase 2 together. It is time to get competent with meeting, attracting and seducing women.
At this point it would be a good idea to right down in point form what you don’t know how to do with women at every step of the way. Essentially, find your ‘sticking point’. Where do most of your problems lie?
Let’s say you don’t know how to move to kissing a woman, then write down ‘kissing women’, or it may be that you don’t know what to say after, Hi! or you don’t know how to approach. Write it all down on a separate piece of paper now, and then store it away. You will refer to this later.
Also, remember that being great with women, or being known as a pickup artist should enrich your life. BUT it shouldn’t define it. On that note, once you get your act together, be careful with your newfound powers. Having these skills can become very addictive. It can be easy to really start taking advantage of women.
So before you go out, please burn this word into your brain: RESPECT.
Respect yourself and those around you. But also respect the women that you interact with. This book will teach you life skills, and teaching respect is something you will learn to teach the women that come into your life.
Respect is a two way street. If a woman you are being kind to is not respecting you, then move on. Don’t allow yourself to be ‘friend zoned’ as the nice guy, while she uses you as her handbag. It’s great to have female friends.
Female friends bring you to amazing, sexy women who will want you. But if a hottie is playing games and knows you want her, but she wastes your time by leading you on in exchange for free rides and drinks, then just….
RUN IN THE OTHER DIRECTION! Learn the lesson and just run.
Let’s travel the new road together. I am happy to be your guide. And with that, let’s first prepare ourselves psychologically for the journey ahead and understand some vital principles that are holding you back.
CHAPTER 3 – WHERE DOES THE FEAR OF WOMEN COME FROM?
How can a pretty, innocent angel with tanned legs, firm breasts, little ass, who giggles and cries, instil so much fear in a population of men? How is this even possible??? This fear has been described to us as the fear of death and could equal the fear of a soldier going in to war. How is it possible?
The fear of women is ridiculous. Yet there it is, defined as a fear of women. A petrifying fear of that sweet, innocent angel.
One theory as to why we fear women is that our brains are wired to live in very small societies. In caveman days, if you were seen to be rejected by one woman in a small community, it would signal to all other women that there was something unworthy about you.
The other women were signalled to stay away from you. Therefore, you would never have the opportunity to spread your seed and carry your genetics to another generation. In other words, your genes would have been ‘weeded existence’.
So there is a huge fear of rejection.
Personally, I believe there is a deeper thought process on fearing women that is rarely discussed. Amazingly, it’s not in the actual fear of women.
I believe your fear can also come from the fact that you must confront yourself and weigh yourself up against the men around you, then question whether you are worthy of a woman the one in front of you that you want to approach. So it’s not so much the fear of that woman, it is the fear of confronting yourself.
If you’ve been able to get a woman to come to your bedroom, how much did you clean before she came over? You feared that your room was not fit for her to be in.
Here is another: Have you ever taken your top off in front of a woman and felt the need to cover up? Why? Were you eating bad food and not exercising and now you look unfit and unhealthy? What about telling her what you do for a living? Do you beef your job title up to make yourself seem more powerful?
If you have felt this fear of women, I believe, if it’s analysed, you are scared that you never bothered to take care of your life. This includes your health, wealth, style, home, relationships, and any other things you have been lazy about.
Do you see great cars out there, driven by guys your exact same age, wishing you could show a woman that YOU drive that car? Do you ever feel a poor man, because you can’t give gifts to the girl you love? Are you so strapped for cash you can’t take a woman on a romantic getaway? Do you fear that she may find out you don’t have much cash?
I have coached guy’s who don’t want to take women to their home because they STILL live with their parents. The fear is in confronting the fact that they have never found their own independence, NOT the fear of the woman.
The fear of women, in its ultimate form, is true self-reflection.
To prove this, when you don’t care if you have a woman, do you find that most of these issues seem mute? But when you